Assessment of imidacloprid treatments used as part of an integrated pest management plan to reduce the impact of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) on eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 

  • persistence of imidacloprid and its metabolites in eastern hemlock foliage

  • variations in the concentration of imidacloprid and its metabolites in different size eastern hemlock trees

  • development of a model to optimize the imidacloprid dose in different size hemlocks

  • relationship between concentrations of imidacloprid and its metabolites on hemlock woolly adelgid densities

  • presence of imidacloprid in streams

  • potential non-target impacts to aquatic macroinvertebrate communities from imidacloprid leaching into streams

Increased knowledge of the persistence of imidacloprid over time in various size eastern hemlock trees and potential non-target impacts to surface water quality has improved management decisions and enhanced eastern hemlock health in the southern Appalachians.